Book Image

Mastering JavaScript Functional Programming - Second Edition

By : Federico Kereki
Book Image

Mastering JavaScript Functional Programming - Second Edition

By: Federico Kereki

Overview of this book

Functional programming is a paradigm for developing software with better performance. It helps you write concise and testable code. To help you take your programming skills to the next level, this comprehensive book will assist you in harnessing the capabilities of functional programming with JavaScript and writing highly maintainable and testable web and server apps using functional JavaScript. This second edition is updated and improved to cover features such as transducers, lenses, prisms and various other concepts to help you write efficient programs. By focusing on functional programming, you’ll not only start to write but also to test pure functions, and reduce side effects. The book also specifically allows you to discover techniques for simplifying code and applying recursion for loopless coding. Gradually, you’ll understand how to achieve immutability, implement design patterns, and work with data types for your application, before going on to learn functional reactive programming to handle complex events in your app. Finally, the book will take you through the design patterns that are relevant to functional programming. By the end of this book, you’ll have developed your JavaScript skills and have gained knowledge of the essential functional programming techniques to program effectively.
Table of Contents (17 chapters)
Technical Requirements

Why use FP?

Throughout the years, there have been many programming styles and fads. However, FP has proven quite resilient and is of great interest today. Why would you want to use FP? The question should rather first be, what do you want to get? and only then, does FP get you that? Let's answer these important questions in the following sections.

What we need

We can certainly agree that the following list of concerns is universal. Our code should have the following qualities:

  • Modular: The functionality of your program should be divided into independent modules, each of which contains what it needs to perform one aspect of the program's functionality. Changes in a module or function shouldn't affect the rest of the code.
  • Understandable: A reader of your program should be able to discern its components, their functions, and their relationships without undue effort. This is closely linked with the maintainability of the code; your code will have to be maintained at some time in the future, whether to be changed or to have new functionality added.
  • Testable: Unit tests try out small parts of your program, verifying their behavior independently of the rest of the code. Your programming style should favor writing code that simplifies the job of writing unit tests. Unit tests are also like documentation in that they can help readers understand what the code is supposed to do.
  • Extensible: It's a fact that your program will someday require maintenance, possibly to add new functionality. Those changes should impact the structure and data flow of the original code only minimally (if at all). Small changes shouldn't imply large, serious refactoring of your code.
  • Reusable: Code reuse has the goal of saving resources, time, and money, and reducing redundancy by taking advantage of previously written code. There are some characteristics that help this goal, such as modularity (which we already mentioned), high cohesion (all the pieces in a module belong together), low coupling (modules are independent of each other), separation of concerns (the parts of a program should overlap in functionality as little as possible), and information hiding (internal changes in a module shouldn't affect the rest of the system).

What we get

So does FP give you the five characteristics we just listed in the previous section?

  • In FP, the goal is to write separate independent functions that are joined together to produce the final results.
  • Programs that are written in a functional style usually tend to be cleaner, shorter, and easier to understand.
  • Functions can be tested on their own, and FP code has advantages in achieving this.
  • You can reuse functions in other programs because they stand on their own, not depending on the rest of the system. Most functional programs share common functions, several of which we'll be considering in this book.
  • Functional code is free from side effects, which means you can understand the objective of a function by studying it without having to consider the rest of the program.

Finally, once you get used to the FP style of programming, code becomes more understandable and easier to extend. So it seems that all five characteristics can be achieved with FP!

For a well-balanced look at the reasons to use FP, I'd suggest reading Why Functional Programming Matters, by John Hughes; it's available online at It's not geared towards JavaScript, but the arguments are easily understandable, anyway.

Not all is gold

However, let's strive for a bit of balance. Using FP isn't a silver bullet that will automagically make your code better. Some FP solutions are actually tricky, and there are developers who greatly enjoy writing code and then asking, what does this do? If you aren't careful, your code may become write-only and practically impossible to maintain; there goes understandable, extensible, and reusable out the door!

Another disadvantage is that you may find it harder to find FP-savvy developers. (Quick question: how many functional programmers sought job ads have you ever seen?) The vast majority of today's web code is written in imperative, non-functional ways, and most coders are used to that way of working. For some, having to switch gears and start writing programs in a different way may prove an unpassable barrier. 

Finally, if you try to go fully functional, you may find yourself at odds with JavaScript, and simple tasks may become hard to do. As we said at the beginning, we'll opt for sorta FP, so we won't be drastically rejecting any language features that aren't 100% functional. After all, we want to use FP to simplify our coding, not to make it more complex!

So, while I'll strive to show you the advantages of going functional in your code, as with any change, there will always be some difficulties. However, I'm fully convinced that you'll be able to surmount them and that your organization will develop better code by applying FP. Dare to change! So, given that you accept that FP may apply to your own problems, let's now consider the other question, can we use JavaScript in a functional way and is it appropriate?