Book Image

Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop

By : Steve Hoffman, Steven Hoffman
Book Image

Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop

By: Steve Hoffman, Steven Hoffman

Overview of this book

Table of Contents (16 chapters)
Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop Second Edition
About the Author
About the Reviewers

Flume events

The basic payload of data transported by Flume is called an event. An event is composed of zero or more headers and a body.

The headers are key/value pairs that can be used to make routing decisions or carry other structured information (such as the timestamp of the event or the hostname of the server from which the event originated). You can think of it as serving the same function as HTTP headers—a way to pass additional information that is distinct from the body.

The body is an array of bytes that contains the actual payload. If your input is comprised of tailed log files, the array is most likely a UTF-8-encoded string containing a line of text.

Flume may add additional headers automatically (like when a source adds the hostname where the data is sourced or creating an event's timestamp), but the body is mostly untouched unless you edit it en route using interceptors.

Interceptors, channel selectors, and sink processors

An interceptor is a point in your data flow where you can inspect and alter Flume events. You can chain zero or more interceptors after a source creates an event. If you are familiar with the AOP Spring Framework, think MethodInterceptor. In Java Servlets, it's similar to ServletFilter. Here's an example of what using four chained interceptors on a source might look like:

Channel selectors are responsible for how data moves from a source to one or more channels. Flume comes packaged with two channel selectors that cover most use cases you might have, although you can write your own if need be. A replicating channel selector (the default) simply puts a copy of the event into each channel, assuming you have configured more than one. In contrast, a multiplexing channel selector can write to different channels depending on some header information. Combined with some interceptor logic, this duo forms the foundation for routing input to different channels.

Finally, a sink processor is the mechanism by which you can create failover paths for your sinks or load balance events across multiple sinks from a channel.

Tiered data collection (multiple flows and/or agents)

You can chain your Flume agents depending on your particular use case. For example, you may want to insert an agent in a tiered fashion to limit the number of clients trying to connect directly to your Hadoop cluster. More likely, your source machines don't have sufficient disk space to deal with a prolonged outage or maintenance window, so you create a tier with lots of disk space between your sources and your Hadoop cluster.

In the following diagram, you can see that there are two places where data is created (on the left-hand side) and two final destinations for the data (the HDFS and ElasticSearch cloud bubbles on the right-hand side). To make things more interesting, let's say one of the machines generates two kinds of data (let's call them square and triangle data). You can see that in the lower-left agent, we use a multiplexing channel selector to split the two kinds of data into different channels. The rectangle channel is then routed to the agent in the upper-right corner (along with the data coming from the upper-left agent). The combined volume of events is written together in HDFS in Datacenter 1. Meanwhile, the triangle data is sent to the agent that writes to ElasticSearch in Datacenter 2. Keep in mind that data transformations can occur after any source. How all of these components can be used to build complicated data workflows will be become clear as we proceed.