PostgreSQL is an incredibly flexible and dependable open source relational database. Harnessing its power will make your applications more reliable and extensible without increasing costs. Using PostgreSQL's advanced features will save you work and increase performance, once you've discovered how to set it up.
PostgreSQL for Data Architects will teach you everything you need to learn in order to get a scalable and optimized PostgreSQL server up and running.
The book starts with basic concepts (such as installing PostgreSQL from source) and covers theoretical aspects (such as concurrency and transaction management). After this, you'll learn how to set up replication, use load balancing to scale horizontally, and troubleshoot errors.
As you continue through this book, you will see the significant impact of configuration parameters on performance, scalability, and transaction management. Finally, you will get acquainted with useful tools available in the PostgreSQL ecosystem used to analyze PostgreSQL logs, set up load balancing, and recovery.
Chapter 1, Installing PostgreSQL, provides an overview of the process to install PostgreSQL from source. The chapter covers the prerequisites to compile from source, and the process to initialize a cluster in Unix/Linux environment. It also covers the directory structure.
Chapter 2, Server Architecture, covers the important processes started when we start a PostgreSQL cluster and how they work along with the memory structures to provide the functionality expected from a database management system.
Chapter 3, PostgreSQL – Object Hierarchy and Roles, explains various object types and objects provided by PostgreSQL. Important concepts such as databases, clusters, tablespaces, and schemas are covered in this chapter.
Chapter 4, Working with Transactions, covers ACID properties of transactions, isolation levels, and how PostgreSQL provides them. Multiversion concurrency control is another topic dealt with in this chapter.
Chapter 5, Data Modeling with SQL Power Architect, talks about how we can model tables and relationships with SQL Power Architect. Some of the aspects that should be considered when we choose a design tool are also covered in this chapter.
Chapter 6, Client Tools, covers two clients tools (pgAdmin: a UI tool and psql: a command-line tool). Browsing database objects, generating queries, and generating the execution plan for queries using pgAdmin are covered. Setting up the environment variables for connecting from psql, viewing history of SQL commands executed, and meta-commands are also covered in this chapter.
Chapter 7, SQL Tuning, explains query optimization techniques. To set the context, some patterns about database use and theory on how the PostgreSQL optimizer works are covered.
Chapter 8, Server Tuning, covers PostgreSQL server settings that have significant impact on query performance. These include memory settings, cost settings, and so on. Two object types: partitions and materialized views are also covered in this chapter.
Chapter 9, Tools to Move Data in and out of PostgreSQL, covers common tools/utilities, such as pg_dump, pg_bulkload, and copy used to move data in and out of PostgreSQL.
Chapter 10, Scaling, Replication, and Backup and Recovery, covers methods that are usually used for achievability. A step-by-step method to achieve horizontal scalability using PostgreSQL's streaming replication and pgpool-II is also presented. Point-in-time recovery for PostgreSQL is also covered in this chapter.
Chapter 11, PostgreSQL – Troubleshooting, explains a few of the most common problems developers run into when they start off with PostgreSQL and how to troubleshoot them. Connection issues, privilege issues, and parameter setting issues are also covered.
Chapter 12, PostgreSQL – Extras, covers quite a few topics. Some interesting data types that every data architect should be aware of, a couple of really useful extensions, and a tool to analyze PostgreSQL log files are covered. It also covers a few interesting features available in PostgreSQL 9.4.
A computer with access to the Internet is mandatory. It will definitely help if the computer is running on a Unix/Linux operating system.
You are expected to have some exposure to databases. Basic familiarity with database objects such as tables and views is expected. You will find this book really useful if you have no or a little exposure to PostgreSQL. If you have been working with PostgreSQL for a few years, you should still find a few useful commands that you were not aware of or a couple of optimization approaches you have not tried. You will also gain more insight into how the database works.
In this book, you will find a number of text styles that distinguish among different kinds of information. Here are some examples of these styles and an explanation of their meaning.
Code words in text, database table names, folder names, filenames, file extensions, pathnames, dummy URLs, user input, and Twitter handles are shown as follows: "We will use the following
wget command to download the source."
A block of code/SQL at psql prompt as well as the output from the server at psql is set as follows:
CREATE TABLE emp(id serial, first_name varchar(50));
Commands executed at shell/command prompt, the output, and parameters and settings are formatted as follows:
[root@MyCentOS ~]# ps f -U postgres PID TTY STAT TIME COMMAND 1918 tty1 S 0:00 /usr/local/pgsql/bin/postgres
New terms and important words are shown in bold.
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