#### Overview of this book

R Graph Essentials
Credits
www.PacktPub.com
Preface
Free Chapter
Base Graphics in R – One Step at a Time
Creating Graphs with ggplot
Index

## R provides many options

Often, R provides several ways to achieve what you want. Let's set up 50 values from `-pi` to `+pi` and graph a sine function. We use the `seq()` command to set up this sequence. Note that R understands the constant Pi, whose value can be obtained using the following command:

```pi
```

The following output is obtained:

```[1] 3.141593
```

Now, we create horizontal and vertical axis points for plotting:

```x <- seq(-pi, pi, length = 50)
y <- sin(x)

plot(x, y, pch = 17, cex = 0.7, col = "darkgreen")
```

Then, we add a line that connects the points:

```lines(x, y, col = "darkgreen")
```

Let's take a look at the resulting graph:

Now try the following approach, using 1000 axis values in order to create a smooth-looking graph:

```x <- seq(-pi, pi, length = 1000)
y <- sin(x)

plot(x, y, type = "l")
```

The output is as follows:

The argument `type = "l"` produces connecting lines, but here we have so many points that the graph appears smooth. Other options include the argument `type = "o"`, which produces symbols joined by straight lines, and `type = "p"`, which produces points.