Book Image

Large Scale Machine Learning with Python

By : Bastiaan Sjardin, Alberto Boschetti
Book Image

Large Scale Machine Learning with Python

By: Bastiaan Sjardin, Alberto Boschetti

Overview of this book

Large Python machine learning projects involve new problems associated with specialized machine learning architectures and designs that many data scientists have yet to tackle. But finding algorithms and designing and building platforms that deal with large sets of data is a growing need. Data scientists have to manage and maintain increasingly complex data projects, and with the rise of big data comes an increasing demand for computational and algorithmic efficiency. Large Scale Machine Learning with Python uncovers a new wave of machine learning algorithms that meet scalability demands together with a high predictive accuracy. Dive into scalable machine learning and the three forms of scalability. Speed up algorithms that can be used on a desktop computer with tips on parallelization and memory allocation. Get to grips with new algorithms that are specifically designed for large projects and can handle bigger files, and learn about machine learning in big data environments. We will also cover the most effective machine learning techniques on a map reduce framework in Hadoop and Spark in Python.
Table of Contents (17 chapters)
Large Scale Machine Learning with Python
Credits
About the Authors
About the Reviewer
www.PacktPub.com
Preface
Index

GPU computing


When we use regular CPU computing packages for machine learning, such as Scikit-learn, the amount of parallelization is surprisingly limited because, by default, an algorithm utilizes only one core even when there are multiple cores available. In the chapter about Classification and Regression Trees (CART), we will see some advanced examples of speeding up Scikit-learn algorithms.

Unlike CPU, GPU units are designed to work in parallel from the ground up. Imagine projecting an image on a screen through a graphical card; it will come as no surprise that the GPU unit has to be able to process and project a lot of information (motion, color, and spatiality) at the same time. CPUs on the other hand are designed for sequential processing suitable for tasks where more control is needed, such as branching and checking. In contrast to the CPU, GPUs are composed of lots of cores that can handle thousands of tasks simultaneously. The GPU can outperform a CPU 100-fold at a lower cost. Another advantage is that modern GPUs are relatively cheap compared to state-of-the-art CPUs.

So all this sounds great but remember that the GPU is only good at carrying out a certain type of task. A CPU consists of a few cores optimized for sequential serial processing while a GPU consists of thousands of smaller, more efficient cores designed to handle tasks simultaneously.

CPUs and GPUs have different architectures that make them better-suited to different tasks. There are still a lot of tasks such as checking, debugging, and switching that GPUs can't do effectively because of its architecture.

A simple way to understand the difference between a CPU and GPU is to compare how they process tasks. An analogy that is often made is that of the analytical and sequential left brain (CPU) and the holistic right brain (GPU). This is just an analogy and should not be taken too seriously.

See more at the following links:

  • http://www.nvidia.com/object/what-is-gpu-computing.html#sthash.c4R7eJ3s.dpuf

  • http://www.nvidia.com/object/what-is-gpu-computing.html#sthash.c4R7eJ3s.dpuf

In order to utilize the GPU for machine learning, a specific platform is required. Unfortunately, as of yet, there are no stable GPU computation platforms other than CUDA; this means that you must have an NVIDIA graphical card installed on your computer. GPU computing will NOT work without an NVIDIA card. Yes, I know that this is bad news for most Mac users out there. I really wish it were different but it is a limitation that we have to live with. There are other projects such as OpenCL that provide GPU computation for other GPU brands through initiatives such as BLAS (https://github.com/clMathLibraries/clBLAS), but they are under heavy development and are not fully optimized for deep learning applications in Python. Another limitation of OpenCL is that only AMD is actively involved so that it will be beneficial to AMD GPUs. There is no hope for a hardware-independent GPU application for machine learning in the following years (decade even!). However, check out the news and developments of the OpenCL project (https://www.khronos.org/opencl/). Considering the widespread media attention that this limitation of GPU accessibility might be quite underwhelming. Only NVIDIA seems to put their research efforts in developing GPU platforms, and it is highly unlikely to see any new serious developments in that field in the years to come.

You will need the following things for the usage of CUDA.

You need to test if the graphical card on your computer is suitable for CUDA. It should at least be an NVIDIA card. You can test if your GPU is viable for CUDA with this line of code in the terminal:

$ su

Now type your password at the root:

$ lspci | grep -i nvidia

If you do have an NVIDIA-based GNU, you can download the NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit (http://developer.nvidia.com/cuda-downloads).

At the time of writing, NVIDIA is on the verge of releasing CUDA version 8, which will have different installation procedures, so we advice you to follow the directions on the CUDA website. For further installation procedures, consult the NVIDIA website:

http://docs.nvidia.com/cuda/cuda-getting-started-guide-for-linux/#axzz3xBimv9ou