Book Image

Learn Scala Programming

By : Slava Schmidt
Book Image

Learn Scala Programming

By: Slava Schmidt

Overview of this book

The second version of Scala has undergone multiple changes to support features and library implementations. Scala 2.13, with its main focus on modularizing the standard library and simplifying collections, brings with it a host of updates. Learn Scala Programming addresses both technical and architectural changes to the redesigned standard library and collections, along with covering in-depth type systems and first-level support for functions. You will discover how to leverage implicits as a primary mechanism for building type classes and look at different ways to test Scala code. You will also learn about abstract building blocks used in functional programming, giving you sufficient understanding to pick and use any existing functional programming library out there. In the concluding chapters, you will explore reactive programming by covering the Akka framework and reactive streams. By the end of this book, you will have built microservices and learned to implement them with the Scala and Lagom framework.
Table of Contents (19 chapters)


A monoid is a semigroup with an identity element. Formally, the identity element z is an element for which an equation, z + x = x + z = x, holds for any x. This equation is called identity property. Both closure and associativity properties that are defined for semigroups are also required to hold for a monoid.

The existence of the identity property requires us to implement the monoid, as follows:

trait Monoid[S] extends Semigroup[S] {
def identity: S

The check we specified for the semigroup also needs to be augmented for the monoid to verify that the new property holds:

def identity[S : Monoid : Arbitrary]: Prop =
forAll((a: S) => {
val m = implicitly[Monoid[S]]
m.op(a, m.identity) == a && m.op(m.identity, a) == a

def monoidProp[S : Monoid : Arbitrary]: Prop = associativity[S] && identity[S]

Now, we can define our first monoid, which will...