#### Overview of this book

Tkinter is the built-in GUI package that comes with standard Python distributions. It is a cross-platform package, which means you build once and deploy everywhere. It is simple to use and intuitive in nature, making it suitable for programmers and non-programmers alike. This book will help you master the art of GUI programming. It delivers the bigger picture of GUI programming by building real-world, productive, and fun applications such as a text editor, drum machine, game of chess, audio player, drawing application, piano tutor, chat application, screen saver, port scanner, and much more. In every project, you will build on the skills acquired in the previous project and gain more expertise. You will learn to write multithreaded programs, network programs, database-driven programs, asyncio based programming and more. You will also get to know the modern best practices involved in writing GUI apps. With its rich source of sample code, you can build upon the knowledge gained with this book and use it in your own projects in the discipline of your choice.
Table of Contents (12 chapters)
Preface
Free Chapter
Meet Tkinter
Programmable Drum Machine
Game of Chess
Building an Audio Player
Piano Tutor
Fun with Canvas
Multiple Fun Projects
Miscellaneous Tips
Other Books You May Enjoy

# Phyllotaxy

Phyllotaxy is derived from the Greek words phýllon (meaning leaf) and táxis (meaning arrangement). Accordingly, phyllotaxy is the study of the spiral arrangements found in leaves and flowers.

In this section, we will code the following floral pattern:

The mathematical details for this program have been taken from Chapter 4 of the book Algorithmic Botany of Plants—a PDF of which can be obtained from here: http://algorithmicbotany.org/papers/abop/abop-ch4.pdf.

Here are the two formulas from the chapter that we will be using:

and

represents the polar coordinate of each point on the canvas. As you shall see, our phyllotaxy will be made up of dots arranged in a spiral pattern. So the variable n in the preceding example represents the count or the index of the nth dot starting at zero at the center of the spiral. The variable c is used as a scale...