#### Overview of this book

Data structures and algorithms are more than just theoretical concepts. They help you become familiar with computational methods for solving problems and writing logical code. Equipped with this knowledge, you can write efficient programs that run faster and use less memory. Hands-On Data Structures and Algorithms with Kotlin book starts with the basics of algorithms and data structures, helping you get to grips with the fundamentals and measure complexity. You'll then move on to exploring the basics of functional programming while getting used to thinking recursively. Packed with plenty of examples along the way, this book will help you grasp each concept easily. In addition to this, you'll get a clear understanding of how the data structures in Kotlin's collection framework work internally. By the end of this book, you will be able to apply the theory of data structures and algorithms to work out real-world problems.
Preface
Free Chapter
Section 1: Getting Started with Data Structures
A Walk Through - Data Structures and Algorithms
Arrays - First Step to Grouping Data
Section 2: Efficient Grouping of Data with Various Data Structures
Understanding Stacks and Queues
Maps - Working with Key-Value Pairs
Section 3: Algorithms and Efficiency
Deep-Dive into Searching Algorithms
Understanding Sorting Algorithms
Section 4: Modern and Advanced Data Structures
Collections and Data Operations in Kotlin
Introduction to Functional Programming
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Assessments

# Introducing circular queues

So far we've looked into the way of implementing a queue using few linear data structures, such as an array and LinkedList. But there's a small performance improvement still needed in the earlier implementations. If you observe closely the performance table described in the previous section, you can see that the dequeue operation of a queue takes an additional amount of time to rearrange the elements of the array. We can improve this by implementing a circular queue.

We can define a circular queue as a queue that maintains two indices in it (front and rear) for doing enqueue and dequeue operations. In this case, enqueue is not always adding an element at the last index. Similarly, dequeue is not always removing an element from 0th index.

The following snippet shows what the circular queue looks like:

`class CircularFixedQueue<E> {   ...`