Book Image

Industrial Cybersecurity

By : Pascal Ackerman
Book Image

Industrial Cybersecurity

By: Pascal Ackerman

Overview of this book

With industries expanding, cyber attacks have increased significantly. Understanding your control system’s vulnerabilities and learning techniques to defend critical infrastructure systems from cyber threats is increasingly important. With the help of real-world use cases, this book will teach you the methodologies and security measures necessary to protect critical infrastructure systems and will get you up to speed with identifying unique challenges.Industrial cybersecurity begins by introducing Industrial Control System (ICS) technology, including ICS architectures, communication media, and protocols. This is followed by a presentation on ICS (in) security. After presenting an ICS-related attack scenario, securing of the ICS is discussed, including topics such as network segmentation, defense-in-depth strategies, and protective solutions. Along with practical examples for protecting industrial control systems, this book details security assessments, risk management, and security program development. It also covers essential cybersecurity aspects, such as threat detection and access management. Topics related to endpoint hardening such as monitoring, updating, and anti-malware implementations are also discussed.
Table of Contents (19 chapters)
Title Page
About the Author
About the Reviewers
Customer Feedback


With the ever-improving and ever-changing cyber threats, businesses need to be on their toes to ensure their safety. This comprehensive book will guide you through understanding the basics of cybersecurity and industrial protocols necessary for building robust industrial control systems. Through real world scenarios, you will understand vulnerabilities and will be equipped with techniques to ward off all kinds of cyber threats.

What this book covers

Chapter 1, Industrial Control Systems, this chapter starts with an overview of the individual parts that make up an Industrial control system. It then explains the different types of Industrial control systems and the devices and technologies typically found within them. This chapter will also introduce the Purdue model, shows where parts of an ICS system belong within that model and describes which network technologies and protocols are used for communication between them.

Chapter 2, Insecure by Inheritance, this chapter explains how Industrial control systems were originally designed to be open, easy-to-use, reliable and fast and how security was never a design goal for various reasons. Then, the chapter will explain how, for the support of ICS network convergence, these insecure proprietary technologies were adapted to work on a common transport medium—Ethernet—and the security implications of doing this. The chapter includes detailed description of the most popular communication protocols and their vulnerabilities.

Chapter 3, Anatomy of an ICS Attack Scenario, this chapter sets the stage of the next part of the book, ICS insecurity. It will take the reader through the steps of a real-world ICS attack scenario as performed on a fictional company’s ICS network (this ICS network will be used throughout the rest of the book as a silver lining to illustrate the material at hand). It explains in detail the motivation, objective, process/procedures, the tools used and possible outcome of a modern day Industrial control system attack and compromise.

Chapter 4, Industrial Control System Risk Assessment, this chapter shows how to use the knowledge learned from the attack scenario from the previous chapter and use it to understand the reasoning behind ICS risk assessments. It introduces the concept of kill chains or attack matrixes and how they are used to start planning mitigation efforts. The chapter will read as a continuation on the intrusion story from 3rd chapter with the fictional company hiring a security consultant to assess their ICS security posture.

Chapter 5, The Purdue Model and a Converged Plantwide Ethernet, this chapter is a detailed explanation on the Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture (short for PERA) as it pertains to ICS architecture—the Purdue model. The Purdue model is an industry best-practice and widely adopted concept model for ICS network segmentation and is used extensively to explain security strategies and architecture.

Chapter 6, The Defense-in-depth Model, this chapter explains the defense in-depth model, how it fits into the Converged Plantwide Ethernet model and how it relates to ICS security. This chapter sets the stage of the remainder of this part of the book.

Chapter 7, Physical ICS Security, This chapter explains how to restrict physical access to the ICS by discussing the methodology of ICS centric physical security and applying some of the best practice techniques and activities as outlined that are outlined in the defense-in-depth model.

Chapter 8, ICS Network Security, this chapter explains how to restrict access to the ICS network by discussing the methodology of ICS centric network security and applying some of the best practice techniques and activities that are outlined in the defense in depth model.

Chapter 9, ICS Computer Security, this chapter explains how to harden ICS computer systems by discussing the methodology of ICS centric computer security and applying some of the best practice techniques and activities that are outlined in the defense in depth model.

Chapter 10, ICS Application Security, This chapter shows how to improve application security by application hardening exercises and discussing ICS centric life cycle management methodologies.

Chapter 11, ICS Device Security, this chapter shows how to improve device security by device hardening exercises and discussing ICS centric device life cycle management methodologies.

Chapter 12, The ICS Cybersecurity Program Development Process, this chapter explains the activities and functions involved in setting up an ICS security program including defining of ICS centric security policies and risk management.

What you need for this book

To get the most out of this book, ideally you should have some experience with supporting an Industrial control system and the network technologies it uses. The topics covered in this book will resonate more if you have lived the struggle to have to update, maintain and secure an ICS that is in full production. That's not to say that you will be lost if you don’t have that experience. The book will cover all the background information needed to comprehend the technical exercises and security activities.

From a technical standpoint, access to a virtualization platform will be required if you want to follow along the exercises in the book. The virtualization solution can be VMware Workstation, Microsoft Hyper-V, or Oracle VirtualBox. Throughout the book I will point out where to find and how to configure specific applications, needed to follow along with the exercises.

Who this book is for

If you are a security professional who wants to ensure a robust environment for critical infrastructure systems, then this book is for you. IT professionals interested in getting into the cybersecurity domain or who are looking at succeeding in industrial cybersecurity certifications would also find this book useful.


In this book, you will find a number of text styles that distinguish between different kinds of information. Here are some examples of these styles and an explanation of their meaning. Code words in text, database table names, folder names, filenames, file extensions, pathnames, dummy URLs, user input, and Twitter handles are shown as follows: "Save the script as and then start it."

A block of code is set as follows:

# Import the libraries we need
from pymodbus.server.async import StartTcpServer
from pymodbus.device import ModbusDeviceIdentification
from pymodbus.datastore import ModbusSequentialDataBlock
from pymodbus.datastore import ModbusSlaveContext, ModbusServerContext

When we wish to draw your attention to a particular part of a code block, the relevant lines or items are set in bold:

# Defining the script variables 
srcIP = ''
srcPort = random.randint(1024, 65535)
dstIP = ''
dstPort = 502
seqNr = random.randint(444, 8765432)
ackNr = 0
transID = random.randint(44,44444)

Any command-line input or output is written as follows:

$ sudo apt-get install python-pip # In case pip did not get installed 
$ sudo pip install pyModbus

New terms and important words are shown in bold.


Warnings or important notes appear like this.


Tips and tricks appear like this.

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