Book Image

Python: Advanced Guide to Artificial Intelligence

By : Giuseppe Bonaccorso, Rajalingappaa Shanmugamani
Book Image

Python: Advanced Guide to Artificial Intelligence

By: Giuseppe Bonaccorso, Rajalingappaa Shanmugamani

Overview of this book

This Learning Path is your complete guide to quickly getting to grips with popular machine learning algorithms. You'll be introduced to the most widely used algorithms in supervised, unsupervised, and semi-supervised machine learning, and learn how to use them in the best possible manner. Ranging from Bayesian models to the MCMC algorithm to Hidden Markov models, this Learning Path will teach you how to extract features from your dataset and perform dimensionality reduction by making use of Python-based libraries. You'll bring the use of TensorFlow and Keras to build deep learning models, using concepts such as transfer learning, generative adversarial networks, and deep reinforcement learning. Next, you'll learn the advanced features of TensorFlow1.x, such as distributed TensorFlow with TF clusters, deploy production models with TensorFlow Serving. You'll implement different techniques related to object classification, object detection, image segmentation, and more. By the end of this Learning Path, you'll have obtained in-depth knowledge of TensorFlow, making you the go-to person for solving artificial intelligence problems This Learning Path includes content from the following Packt products: • Mastering Machine Learning Algorithms by Giuseppe Bonaccorso • Mastering TensorFlow 1.x by Armando Fandango • Deep Learning for Computer Vision by Rajalingappaa Shanmugamani
Table of Contents (31 chapters)
Title Page
About Packt
Tensor Processing Units

k-Nearest Neighbors

This algorithm belongs to a particular family called instance-based (the methodology is called instance-based learning). It differs from other approaches because it doesn't work with an actual mathematical model. On the contrary, the inference is performed by direct comparison of new samples with existing ones (which are defined as instances). KNN is an approach that can be easily employed to solve clustering, classification, and regression problems (even if, in this case, we are going to consider only the first technique). The main idea behind the clustering algorithm is very simple. Let's consider a data generating process pdata and a finite a dataset drawn from this distribution:


Each sample has a dimensionality equal to N. We can now introduce a distance function d(x1, x2), which in the majority of cases can be generalized with the Minkowski distance:

When p = 2, dp represents the classical Euclidean distance, that is normally the default choice. In particular cases...