The most basic law of electronics are Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's law.

Ohm's law deals with the relationship between voltage and current in an ideal conductor. This relationship states that:

The potential difference (voltage) across an ideal conductor is proportional to the current through it.

The constant of proportionality is called the resistance, *R*, which has already been described in the previous section. Ohm's law is given as follows:

V = I R

Here, *I* is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, *V* is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and *R* is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms.

Kirchhoff's law is the starting point for analysis of any circuit. In 1845, Gustav Kirchhoff, a German physicist, first described two laws that became central to electrical engineering. The laws were generalized from the work of Georg Ohm. These two laws are:

**Kirchhoff's Current Law**(**KCL**).**Kirchhoff's...**