Book Image

C++ Fundamentals

By : Antonio Mallia, Francesco Zoffoli
Book Image

C++ Fundamentals

By: Antonio Mallia, Francesco Zoffoli

Overview of this book

C++ Fundamentals begins by introducing you to the C++ compilation model and syntax. You will then study data types, variable declaration, scope, and control flow statements. With the help of this book, you'll be able to compile fully working C++ code and understand how variables, references, and pointers can be used to manipulate the state of the program. Next, you will explore functions and classes — the features that C++ offers to organize a program — and use them to solve more complex problems. You will also understand common pitfalls and modern best practices, especially the ones that diverge from the C++98 guidelines. As you advance through the chapters, you'll study the advantages of generic programming and write your own templates to make generic algorithms that work with any type. This C++ book will guide you in fully exploiting standard containers and algorithms, understanding how to pick the appropriate one for each problem. By the end of this book, you will not only be able to write efficient code but also be equipped to improve the readability, performance, and maintainability of your programs.
Table of Contents (9 chapters)
C++ Fundamentals

Local and Global Variables

The body of a function is a code block that can contain valid statements, one of which is a variable definition. As we learned in Lesson 1, Getting Started, when such a statement appears, the function declares a local variable.

This is in contrast to global variables, which are the variables that are declared outside of functions (and classes, which we will look at in Lesson 3, Classes).

The difference between a local and a global variable is in the scope in which it is declared, and thus, in who can access it.


Local variables are in the function scope and can only be accessed by the function. On the contrary, global variables can be accessed by any function that can see them.

It is desirable to use local variables over global variables because they enable encapsulation: only the code inside the function body can access and modify the variable, making the variable invisible to the rest of the program. This makes it easy to understand how a variable is used by a...