Book Image

C++ Fundamentals

By : Antonio Mallia, Francesco Zoffoli
Book Image

C++ Fundamentals

By: Antonio Mallia, Francesco Zoffoli

Overview of this book

C++ Fundamentals begins by introducing you to the C++ compilation model and syntax. You will then study data types, variable declaration, scope, and control flow statements. With the help of this book, you'll be able to compile fully working C++ code and understand how variables, references, and pointers can be used to manipulate the state of the program. Next, you will explore functions and classes — the features that C++ offers to organize a program — and use them to solve more complex problems. You will also understand common pitfalls and modern best practices, especially the ones that diverge from the C++98 guidelines. As you advance through the chapters, you'll study the advantages of generic programming and write your own templates to make generic algorithms that work with any type. This C++ book will guide you in fully exploiting standard containers and algorithms, understanding how to pick the appropriate one for each problem. By the end of this book, you will not only be able to write efficient code but also be equipped to improve the readability, performance, and maintainability of your programs.
Table of Contents (9 chapters)
C++ Fundamentals

Nested Class Declarations

Inside the scope of a class, we can declare more than just data members and member functions; we can declare a class inside another class. These classes are called nested classes.

Since a nested class declaration happens inside the outer class, it has access to all the declared names as if it were part of the outer class: it can access even private declarations.

On the other hand, a nested class is not associated with any instance, so it can only access static members.

To access a nested class, we can use the double colon (::), similar to accessing static members of the outer class. Let's examine the following example:

// Declaration
class Coordinate {
  struct CoordinateDistance {
    float x = 0;
    float y = 0;
    static float walkingDistance(CoordinateDistance distance);
// Create an instance of the nested class CoordinateDistance
Coordinate::CoordinateDistance distance;

/* Invoke the static method walkingDistance declared inside the nested class CoordinateDistance...