Book Image

Data Analysis Using SQL and Excel - Second Edition

By : Gordon S. S. Linoff
Book Image

Data Analysis Using SQL and Excel - Second Edition

By: Gordon S. S. Linoff

Overview of this book

Data Analysis Using SQL and Excel, 2nd Edition shows you how to leverage the two most popular tools for data query and analysis—SQL and Excel—to perform sophisticated data analysis without the need for complex and expensive data mining tools. Written by a leading expert on business data mining, this book shows you how to extract useful business information from relational databases. You'll learn the fundamental techniques before moving into the "where" and "why" of each analysis, and then learn how to design and perform these analyses using SQL and Excel. Examples include SQL and Excel code, and the appendix shows how non-standard constructs are implemented in other major databases, including Oracle and IBM DB2/UDB. The companion website includes datasets and Excel spreadsheets, and the book provides hints, warnings, and technical asides to help you every step of the way. Data Analysis Using SQL and Excel, 2nd Edition shows you how to perform a wide range of sophisticated analyses using these simple tools, sparing you the significant expense of proprietary data mining tools like SAS.
Table of Contents (18 chapters)
Free Chapter
1
Foreword
17
EULA

CHAPTER 10
Association Rules and Beyond

 

Association rules go beyond merely exploring products: They identify groups of products that tend to appear together. A big part of the allure and power of association rules is that they “discover” patterns automatically, rather than by the hypothesis testing methods used in the previous chapter.

A classical example of association rules is the beer and diapers story, which claims that the two items are purchased together late in the week. This makes for an appealing story. Young mom realizes that there are not enough diapers for the weekend. She calls young dad as he comes home from work, asking him to pick up diapers on the way home. He knows that if he gets beer (and drinks it), he won’t have to change the diapers.

Although a colorful (and sexist) explanation, association rules were not used to find this “unexpected” pattern (the details were explained in a Forbes article in 1998). In fact, retailers...