Basic Statistical Concepts
Over the past two centuries, statistics has delved into the mathematics of understanding measurements and their interpretation. Although the theoretical aspects of the subject are beyond the scope of this book, some basic concepts are very useful. In fact, not using the foundation of statistics would be negligent because so many brilliant minds have already answered questions quite similar to the ones being asked. Of course, the great minds of statistics who were developing these techniques a century ago had access neither to modern computers nor to the vast volumes of data available today. Many of the methods have nonetheless withstood the test of time.
This section discusses some important concepts in statistics, in the spirit of introducing useful ideas and terminology:
 The Null Hypothesis
 Confidence (versus probability)

Normal distribution
The later sections in this chapter build on these ideas, applying the results to realworld data.