## Introduction to k-modes Clustering

All the types of clustering that we have studied so far are based on a distance metric. But what if we get a dataset in which it's not possible to measure the distance between variables in a traditional sense, as in the case of categorical variables? In such cases, we use k-modes clustering.

k-modes clustering is an extension of k-means clustering, dealing with modes instead of means. One of the major applications of k-modes clustering is analyzing categorical data such as survey results.

### Steps for k-Modes Clustering

In statistics, mode is defined as the most frequently occurring value. So, for k-modes clustering, we're going to calculate the mode of categorical values to choose centers. So, the steps to perform k-modes clustering are as follows:

Choose any k number of random points as cluster centers.

Find the Hamming distance (discussed in

*Chapter 1*,*Introduction to Clustering Methods*) of each point from the center.Assign each point to a cluster whose center...