#### Overview of this book

C++ is a mature multi-paradigm programming language that enables you to write high-level code with a high degree of control over the hardware. Today, significant parts of software infrastructure, including databases, browsers, multimedia frameworks, and GUI toolkits, are written in C++. This book starts by introducing C++ data structures and how to store data using linked lists, arrays, stacks, and queues. In later chapters, the book explains the basic algorithm design paradigms, such as the greedy approach and the divide-and-conquer approach, which are used to solve a large variety of computational problems. Finally, you will learn the advanced technique of dynamic programming to develop optimized implementations of several algorithms discussed in the book. By the end of this book, you will have learned how to implement standard data structures and algorithms in efficient and scalable C++ 14 code.
Free Chapter
1. Lists, Stacks, and Queues
2. Trees, Heaps, and Graphs
3. Hash Tables and Bloom Filters
4. Divide and Conquer
5. Greedy Algorithms
6. Graph Algorithms I
7. Graph Algorithms II
8. Dynamic Programming I
9. Dynamic Programming II

## Kosaraju's Algorithm

One of the most common and conceptually easy to grasp methods of finding the strongly connected components of a graph is Kosaraju's algorithm. Kosaraju's algorithm works by performing two independent sets of DFS traversals, first exploring the graph in its original form, and then doing the same with its transpose.

#### Note

Though DFS is the type of traversal typically used in Kosaraju's algorithm, BFS is also a viable option. For the explanations and exercises included in this chapter, however, we will stick with the traditional DFS-based approach.

The transpose of a graph is essentially identical to the original graph, except that the source/destination vertices in each of its edges are swapped (that is, if there is an edge from node A to node B in the original graph, the transposed graph will have an edge from node B to node A):

###### Figure 7.16: Transpose of a graph

The first step of the algorithm (after initialization) is to iterate through the...