Localization is concerned with adapting software to be used in different locales. A locale is linked to a region where certain cultural aspects apply, such as language, formatting of dates and times, calendric representation, and so on.
As Moodle is used worldwide and given that many educational establishments span continents and cultures, localization must be fully supported.
If the main language of your Moodle system is anything other than (UK or US) English, make sure you select this during installation. This way, locale settings, as well as role names and descriptions, will be adequately localized.
The key areas that can be configured in Moodle are language-related settings and calendric information. Languages and calendars are the topics of the following two subsections.