Leslie Lamport developed Paxos. It is the most fundamental distributed consensus algorithm, allowing consensus over a value under unreliable communications. In other words, Paxos is used to build a reliable system that works correctly, even in the presence of faults.
Paxos was proposed first in 1989 and then later, more formally, in 1998 in the following paper:
Lamport, L., 1998. The part-time parliament. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), 16(2), pp.133-169.
Note that Paxos works...