Book Image

Practical C Programming

By : B. M. Harwani
Book Image

Practical C Programming

By: B. M. Harwani

Overview of this book

Used in everything from microcontrollers to operating systems, C is a popular programming language among developers because of its flexibility and versatility. This book helps you get hands-on with various tasks, covering the fundamental as well as complex C programming concepts that are essential for making real-life applications. You’ll start with recipes for arrays, strings, user-defined functions, and pre-processing directives. Once you’re familiar with the basic features, you’ll gradually move on to learning pointers, file handling, concurrency, networking, and inter-process communication (IPC). The book then illustrates how to carry out searching and arrange data using different sorting techniques, before demonstrating the implementation of data structures such as stacks and queues. Later, you’ll learn interesting programming features such as using graphics for drawing and animation, and the application of general-purpose utilities. Finally, the book will take you through advanced concepts such as low-level programming, embedded software, IoT, and security in coding, as well as techniques for improving code performance. By the end of this book, you'll have a clear understanding of C programming, and have the skills you need to develop robust apps.
Table of Contents (20 chapters)

Circular linked lists

In a linear linked list, the nodes are connected one after the other, and each node except the first has a unique predecessor and successor. The last node is set to point at NULL to indicate the termination of the linked list. But in the case of a circular linked list, the next pointer of the last node points back to the first node instead of pointing at NULL. In other words, a circular linked list has no NULL pointer, as can be seen in the following diagram:

The advantage of a circular linked list over a linear linked list is that a circular linked list allows the pointer to move in reverse direction too. In real-world applications, the circular linked list is used in several places. For example, it can be used in an operating system while scheduling a CPU in a round-robin fashion, it can be used in a playlist of songs, and it can be used to track users...