# Regularization

When a model is ill-conditioned or prone to overfitting, **regularization** offers some valid tools to mitigate the problems. From a mathematical viewpoint, a regularizer is a penalty added to the cost function, to impose an extra condition on the evolution of the parameters:

The parameter controls the strength of the regularization, which is expressed through the function . A fundamental condition on is that it must be differentiable so that the new composite cost function can still be optimized using SGD algorithms. In general, any regular function can be employed; however, we normally need a function that can contrast the indefinite growth of the parameters.

To understand the principle, let's consider the following diagram:

Interpolation with a linear curve (left) and a parabolic one (right)

In the first diagram, the model is linear and has two parameters, while in the second one, it is quadratic and has three parameters. We already...