Book Image

Qt5 C++ GUI Programming Cookbook - Second Edition

By : Lee Zhi Eng
Book Image

Qt5 C++ GUI Programming Cookbook - Second Edition

By: Lee Zhi Eng

Overview of this book

With the growing need to develop GUIs for multiple targets and multiple screens, improving the visual quality of your application becomes important so that it stands out from your competitors. With its cross-platform ability and the latest UI paradigms, Qt makes it possible to build intuitive, interactive, and user-friendly user interfaces for your applications. Qt5 C++ GUI Programming Cookbook, Second Edition teaches you how to develop functional and appealing user interfaces using the latest version of QT5 and C++. This book will help you learn a variety of topics such as GUI customization and animation, graphics rendering, implementing Google Maps, and more. You will also be taken through advanced concepts like asynchronous programming, event handling using signals and slots, network programming, various aspects of optimizing your application. By the end of the book, you will be confident to design and customize GUI applications that meet your clients' expectations and have an understanding of best practice solutions for common problems.
Table of Contents (15 chapters)

Customizing basic style sheets

In the previous recipe, you learned how to apply a style sheet to a widget with Qt Designer. Let's go crazy and push things further by creating a few other types of widgets and change their style properties to something bizarre for the sake of learning.

This time, however, we will not apply the style to every single widget one by one, but we will learn to apply the style sheet to the main window and let it inherit down the hierarchy to all the other widgets, so that the style sheet is easier to manage and maintain in the long run.

How to do it...

In the following example, we will format different types of widgets on the canvas and add some code to the style sheet to change its appearance:

  1. Remove the style sheet from PushButton by selecting it and clicking the small arrow button beside the styleSheet property. This button will revert the property to the default value, which in this case is the empty style sheet.
  2. Add a few more widgets to the UI by dragging them one by one from the Widget Box to the form editor. I've added a line edit, combo box, horizontal slider, radio button, and a check box.
  1. For the sake of simplicity, delete the menuBar, mainToolBar, and the statusBar from your UI by selecting them from the Object Inspector, right-click, and choose Remove. Now, your UI should look similar to this:
  1. Select the main window from either the form editor or the Object Inspector, then right-click and choose Change styleSheet... to open up the Edit Style Sheet window. Insert the following into the style sheet:
border: 2px solid gray;
border-radius: 10px;
padding: 0 8px;
background: yellow;
  1. You will see a bizarre-looking UI with everything covered in yellow with a thick border. This is because the preceding style sheet does not have a selector, which means the style will apply to the children widgets of the main window all the way down the hierarchy. To change that, let's try something different:
QPushButton {
border: 2px solid gray;
border-radius: 10px;
padding: 0 8px;
background: yellow;
}
  1. This time, only PushButton will get the style described in the preceding code, and all other widgets will return to the default styling. You can try to add a few more push buttons to your UI and they will all look the same:
  1. This happens because we specifically tell the selector to apply the style to all the widgets with the QPushButton class. We can also apply the style to just one of the push buttons by mentioning its name in the style sheet, as in the following code:
QPushButton#pushButton_3 {
border: 2px solid gray;
border-radius: 10px;
padding: 0 8px;
background: yellow;
}
  1. Once you understand this method, we can add the following code to the style sheet:
QPushButton {
color: red;
border: 0px;
padding: 0 8px;
background: white;
}

QPushButton#pushButton_2 {
border: 1px solid red;
border-radius: 10px;
}
  1. This code basically changes the style of all the push buttons, as well as some properties of the pushButton_2 button. We keep the style sheet of pushButton_3 as it is. Now the buttons will look like this:


  1. The first set of style sheets will change all widgets of the QPushButton type to a white rectangular button with no border and red text. The second set of style sheets changes only the border of a specific QPushButton widget called pushButton_2. Notice that the background color and text color of pushButton_2 remain white and red, respectively, because we didn't override them in the second set of style sheets, hence it will return to the style described in the first set of style sheets since it's applicable to all the QPushButton widgets. The text of the third button has also changed to red because we didn't describe the Color property in the third set of style sheets.
  1. Create another set of style sheets that use the universal selector, using the following code:
* {
background: qradialgradient(cx: 0.3, cy: -0.4, fx: 0.3, fy: -0.4, radius: 1.35, stop: 0 #fff, stop: 1 #888);
color: rgb(255, 255, 255);
border: 1px solid #ffffff;
}
  1. The universal selector will affect all the widgets, regardless of their type. Therefore, the preceding style sheet will apply a nice gradient color to all the widgets' backgrounds and set their text to white with a one-pixel solid outline that is also white. Instead of writing the name of the color (that is, white), we can use the rgb function (rgb(255, 255, 255)) or hex code (#ffffff) to describe the color value.
  2. As before, the preceding style sheet will not affect the push buttons because we have already given them their own styles, which will override the general style described in the universal selector. Just remember that in Qt, the style that is more specific will ultimately be used when there is more than one style with an influence on a widget. This is how the UI will look now:

How it works...

If you are ever involved in web development using HTML and CSS, Qt's style sheet works exactly the same way as CSS. Style sheets provide the definitions to describe the presentation of the widgets what the colors are for each element in the widget group, how thick the border should be, and so on and so forth. If you specify the name of the widget to the style sheet, it will change the style of the particular PushButton widget with the name you provide. None of the other widgets will be affected and will remain as the default style.

To change the name of a widget, select the widget from either the form editor or the Object Inspector and change the property called objectName in the property window. If you have used the ID selector previously to change the style of the widget, changing its object name will break the style sheet and lose the style. To fix this problem, simply change the object name in the style sheet as well.