Book Image

Transformers for Natural Language Processing

By : Denis Rothman
Book Image

Transformers for Natural Language Processing

By: Denis Rothman

Overview of this book

The transformer architecture has proved to be revolutionary in outperforming the classical RNN and CNN models in use today. With an apply-as-you-learn approach, Transformers for Natural Language Processing investigates in vast detail the deep learning for machine translations, speech-to-text, text-to-speech, language modeling, question answering, and many more NLP domains with transformers. The book takes you through NLP with Python and examines various eminent models and datasets within the transformer architecture created by pioneers such as Google, Facebook, Microsoft, OpenAI, and Hugging Face. The book trains you in three stages. The first stage introduces you to transformer architectures, starting with the original transformer, before moving on to RoBERTa, BERT, and DistilBERT models. You will discover training methods for smaller transformers that can outperform GPT-3 in some cases. In the second stage, you will apply transformers for Natural Language Understanding (NLU) and Natural Language Generation (NLG). Finally, the third stage will help you grasp advanced language understanding techniques such as optimizing social network datasets and fake news identification. By the end of this NLP book, you will understand transformers from a cognitive science perspective and be proficient in applying pretrained transformer models by tech giants to various datasets.
Table of Contents (16 chapters)
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Evaluating machine translation with BLEU

Papineni et al. (2002) came up with an efficient way to evaluate a human translation. The human baseline was difficult to define. However, they realized that if we compared human translation to machine translation word by word, we could obtain efficient results.

Papineni et al. (2002) named their method the Bilingual Evaluation Understudy Score (BLEU).

In this section, we will use the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) to implement BLEU:

We will begin with geometric evaluations.

Geometric evaluations

The BLEU method compares the parts of a candidate sentence to a reference sentence or several reference sentences.

Open, which is in the chapter directory of the GitHub repository of this book.

The program imports the nltk module:

from nltk.translate.bleu_score import sentence_bleu
from nltk.translate.bleu_score import...