Book Image

Learn Java 12 Programming

By : Nick Samoylov
Book Image

Learn Java 12 Programming

By: Nick Samoylov

Overview of this book

Java is one of the preferred languages among developers, used in everything right from smartphones, and game consoles to even supercomputers, and its new features simply add to the richness of the language. This book on Java programming begins by helping you learn how to install the Java Development Kit. You will then focus on understanding object-oriented programming (OOP), with exclusive insights into concepts like abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism, which will help you when programming for real-world apps. Next, you’ll cover fundamental programming structures of Java such as data structures and algorithms that will serve as the building blocks for your apps. You will also delve into core programming topics that will assist you with error handling, debugging, and testing your apps. As you progress, you’ll move on to advanced topics such as Java libraries, database management, and network programming, which will hone your skills in building professional-grade apps. Further on, you’ll understand how to create a graphic user interface using JavaFX and learn to build scalable apps by taking advantage of reactive and functional programming. By the end of this book, you’ll not only be well versed with Java 10, 11, and 12, but also gain a perspective into the future of this language and software development in general.
Table of Contents (25 chapters)
Free Chapter
Section 1: Overview of Java Programming
Section 2: Building Blocks of Java
Section 3: Advanced Java

Final variable, method, and classes

We have mentioned a final property several times in relation to the notion of a constant in Java. But that is only one case of using the final keyword. It can be applied to any variable in general. Also, a similar constraint can be applied to a method and even a class too, thus preventing the method from being overridden and the class being extended.

Final variable

The final keyword placed in front of a variable declaration makes this variable immutable after the initialization. For example:

final String s = "abc";

The initialization can even be delayed:

final String s;
s = "abc";

In the case of an object property, this delay can last only until the object is created....