Book Image

Modern C++ Programming Cookbook - Second Edition

By : Marius Bancila
5 (1)
Book Image

Modern C++ Programming Cookbook - Second Edition

5 (1)
By: Marius Bancila

Overview of this book

C++ has come a long way to be one of the most widely used general-purpose languages that is fast, efficient, and high-performance at its core. The updated second edition of Modern C++ Programming Cookbook addresses the latest features of C++20, such as modules, concepts, coroutines, and the many additions to the standard library, including ranges and text formatting. The book is organized in the form of practical recipes covering a wide range of problems faced by modern developers. The book also delves into the details of all the core concepts in modern C++ programming, such as functions and classes, iterators and algorithms, streams and the file system, threading and concurrency, smart pointers and move semantics, and many others. It goes into the performance aspects of programming in depth, teaching developers how to write fast and lean code with the help of best practices. Furthermore, the book explores useful patterns and delves into the implementation of many idioms, including pimpl, named parameter, and attorney-client, teaching techniques such as avoiding repetition with the factory pattern. There is also a chapter dedicated to unit testing, where you are introduced to three of the most widely used libraries for C++: Boost.Test, Google Test, and Catch2. By the end of the book, you will be able to effectively leverage the features and techniques of C++11/14/17/20 programming to enhance the performance, scalability, and efficiency of your applications.
Table of Contents (16 chapters)
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Generating hash values for custom types

The standard library provides several unordered associative containers: std::unordered_set, std::unordered_multiset, std::unordered_map, and std::unordered_map. These containers do not store their elements in a particular order; instead, they are grouped in buckets. The bucket an element belongs to depends on the hash value of the element. These standard containers use, by default, the std::hash class template to compute the hash value. The specialization for all basic types and also some library types is available. However, for custom types, you must specialize the class template yourself. This recipe will show you how to do that and also explain how a good hash value can be computed. A good hash value can be computed fast and is uniformly dispersed across the value domain, therefore minimizing the chances of duplicate values (collisions) existing.

Getting ready

For the examples in this recipe, we will use the following class: