#### Overview of this book

Python, one of the world's most popular programming languages, has a number of powerful packages to help you tackle complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way. These core capabilities help programmers pave the way for building exciting applications in various domains, such as machine learning and data science, using knowledge in the computational mathematics domain. The book teaches you how to solve problems faced in a wide variety of mathematical fields, including calculus, probability, statistics and data science, graph theory, optimization, and geometry. You'll start by developing core skills and learning about packages covered in Python’s scientific stack, including NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib. As you advance, you'll get to grips with more advanced topics of calculus, probability, and networks (graph theory). After you gain a solid understanding of these topics, you'll discover Python's applications in data science and statistics, forecasting, geometry, and optimization. The final chapters will take you through a collection of miscellaneous problems, including working with specific data formats and accelerating code. By the end of this book, you'll have an arsenal of practical coding solutions that can be used and modified to solve a wide range of practical problems in computational mathematics and data science.
Preface
Basic Packages, Functions, and Concepts
Free Chapter
Mathematical Plotting with Matplotlib
Working with Randomness and Probability
Geometric Problems
Finding Optimal Solutions
Miscellaneous Topics
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# How it works...

The GeoPandas package is an extension of Pandas that works with geographical data, while the Geoplot package is an extension of Matplotlib that's used to plot geographical data. The GeoPandas package comes with a selection of sample datasets that we used in this recipe. naturalearth_lowres contains geometric figures that describe the boundaries of countries in the world. This data is not very high resolution, as signified by its name, which means that some of the finer details of geographical features might not be present on the map. (Some small islands are not shown at all.) naturalearth_cities contains the names and locations of the capital cities of the world. We're using the datasets.get_path routine to retrieve the path for these datasets in the package data directory. The read_file routine imports the data into the Python session.

The Geoplot package provides some additional plotting routines specifically for plotting geographical data....