#### Overview of this book

Python, one of the world's most popular programming languages, has a number of powerful packages to help you tackle complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way. These core capabilities help programmers pave the way for building exciting applications in various domains, such as machine learning and data science, using knowledge in the computational mathematics domain. The book teaches you how to solve problems faced in a wide variety of mathematical fields, including calculus, probability, statistics and data science, graph theory, optimization, and geometry. You'll start by developing core skills and learning about packages covered in Python’s scientific stack, including NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib. As you advance, you'll get to grips with more advanced topics of calculus, probability, and networks (graph theory). After you gain a solid understanding of these topics, you'll discover Python's applications in data science and statistics, forecasting, geometry, and optimization. The final chapters will take you through a collection of miscellaneous problems, including working with specific data formats and accelerating code. By the end of this book, you'll have an arsenal of practical coding solutions that can be used and modified to solve a wide range of practical problems in computational mathematics and data science.
Preface
Basic Packages, Functions, and Concepts
Free Chapter
Mathematical Plotting with Matplotlib
Working with Randomness and Probability
Geometric Problems
Finding Optimal Solutions
Miscellaneous Topics
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# Solving simple differential equations numerically

Differential equations arise in situations where a quantity evolves, usually over time, according to a given relationship. They are extremely common in engineering and physics, and appear quite naturally. One of the classic examples of a (very simple) differential equation is the law of cooling devised by Newton. The temperature of a body cools at a rate proportional to the current temperature. Mathematically, this means that we can write the derivative of the temperature T of the body at time t > 0 using the differential equation

where k is a positive constant that determines the rate of cooling. This differential equation can be solved analytically by first "separating the variables" and then integrating and rearranging. After performing this procedure, we obtain the general solution

where T0 is the initial temperature.

In this recipe...